HIP HOP LIFESTYLE

Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

Soviet Repression

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • Soviet Repression

    Anti-Communist hysteria and Cold War propagandists have lead the masses to believe Communism is worse than fascism and imperialism. One can never go a day without hearing the baseless and fascist slogan "Stalin was worse than Hitler," from various plebs. The coroporate owned mass-media has promoted this nonsense and has given the impression that no counter arguments exist, or if they do they are "Stalinist wackos".

    Such talk is even present on the alleged "free-posting" fascist conglomerate Wikipedia. However there has been many historians and researchers throughout the decades that have challenged this right-wing propaganda. These researchers used the Soviet documents; while the proagandists use Soviet dissident's words during the height of the Cold War. Any political analyist would be wise enough to never believe the words of dissidents escaping to a hostile enemy, as they are prone to lie and exagerrate tales from the country they migrated from for wicked purposes. The United States brutal wars around the world, the military industrial complex, could not survive without an evil enemy.

    Here are historical sources on the Stalinist and socialist years of the USSR.


    Source: Data from secret 1953 report prepared shortly after Stalin's death. This document was requested by the Kremlin leadership for purposes of assessing the extent of crimes committed during the years of Stalin's ascendancy. The numbers were compiled into table form by V. P. Popov and published as such in Otechestvennye arkhivy 1992 no. 2 (2,8-29); reprinted in Istoriia Rossii 1917-1940: Khrestomatiia (Ekaterinburg, 1993), 340.

    The chart above reports the number of sentences handled by the Cheka and its successor police organs on an annual basis from 1921 through 1940. It reflects both garden-variety criminal cases (including white-collar crime) and politicized sanctions (slandering the regime; counterrevolutionary activity, etc.).

    This data by no means captures all victims of repression during the years in question. Some 357,000 "kulak" heads of household were deported in 1930-31 along with their family members. Most seem to have been omitted on the grounds that they were processed initially by administrative, not police organs. Also glaringly absent are 180,000 ethnic Koreans deported from the Soviet Far East to Uzbekistan/Kazakhstan in 1937 plus 17,000 ethnic Chinese expelled at roughly the same time into Manchuria. Nevertheless the numbers correspond to general rises and falls in the level of state coercion existing at any given moment under Stalin.

    The human cost associated with the so-called "Stalin Revolution" (1929-38) is appallingly obvious. Note the sharp rise in 1930-31 associated with collectivization, the relative retreat from repression in 1934, the almost immediate return to prior levels in 1935-36, and the extraordinary paroxysm of violence in 1937-38. Roughly nine-tenths of all executions carried out by police organs in this period occurred during the two deadly years of the "Great Purges."

    As for precisely whom the Great Purges targeted, the evidence remains inconclusive. Conventional wisdom suggests that elites were the main targets and there is much to sustain this view. However one of the more surprising revelations of the post-Soviet era has been the discovery that there was another side to the killing. Many deaths involved the systematic "liquidation" of socially marginal people whose names had accumulated on secret-police "enemies lists."

    Politicized risk factors (social origin; ethnicity; religiosity; criminal background; one-time association with an anti-Stalin political faction), police tracking and surveillance, and/or denunciation by one's peers conspired to mark tens of thousands of Soviet citizens as suspect. As the conventional Purges unfolded in the summer of 1937 among the elite strata of Stalinist society--Party officials, administrators, managers, professionals, military officers, the intelligentsia--the NKVD received the green light for a simultaneous "cleansing" of the ordinary citizens on its lists. It began to carry out preemptive roundups it euphemistically called "mass operations." These operations were pursued to excess. Regional officials invariably discovered there were more "enemies" lurking on hand than they previously had thought, enemies all the more dangerous for having been hidden. They constantly pressed for upward revision of their original quotas. Organizational zealousness ran completely amok: mass executions quickly replaced incarceration as the people-removing method of choice.

    "Usual suspects" officially targeted during the mass operations included:

    * Former kulaks who had come back to their villages after serving out sentences and who were continuing to engage in active anti-Soviet subversion;

    * Former kulaks who had run off from camps or labor settlements, and also kulaks who had concealed themselves during dekulakization and were engaging in anti-Soviet activities;

    * Former kulaks and socially dangerous elements, consisting of members of insurgent, fascist, terrorist and bandit formations who had served out sentences, concealed themselves from repression, or escaped from incarceration and had renewed their anti-Soviet activities;

    * Former members of anti-Soviet parties (SR's, Gruzmeiki, Mussavatisty, Ittikhadisty and Dashnaki [the last 4 were Caucasus political parties circa 1917], former Whites, gendarmes, Imperial functionaries, members of punitive expeditions, bandits, abettors of banditry, persons who had been transported, and re-immigrants who had served out sentences, concealed themselves from repression, or escaped from incarceration and were continuing to carry out anti-Soviet subversion;

    * The more hostile and active participants in now-liquidated Cossack-White Guardist insurgent organizations, fascist terrorist and spying-sabotage counterrevolutionary formations, as identified by investigation and by verified materials from secret agents. Elements in these categories currently in custody also are subject to repression when investigations in their cases have been completed but matters not yet been reviewed by judicial bodies;

    * The more active anti-Soviet elements of those former kulaks, members of punitive expeditions, bandits, Whites, sectarian activists, clergy and others now in prisons, jails, camps, labor settlements, and labor colonies who have been continuing to carry out active anti-Soviet work there;

    * Criminals (bandits, robbers, recidivist petty thieves, cattle thieves), engaged in criminal activities and tied to the criminal milieu. Elements in these categories currently under guard also are subject to repression when investigations in their cases have been completed but matters not yet reviewed by judicial bodies;

    * Criminal elements in camps and labor colonies who are engaged in criminal activities in them...

    Source: Draft resolution "On operations for the repression of former kulaks, criminals, and other anti-Soviet elements" promulgated by NKVD head Nikolai Ezhov, 30 June 1937, reprinted in Istoriia Rossii 1917-1940: Khrestomatiia (Ekaterinburg, 1993), 340.


    In practice a great deal of local interpretation of these already elastic guidelines occurred. One very common risk category not on the above list was "speculator" (i.e. petty trader). Another such stigmatizing marker was ethnicity, in which the notorious characteristics of the few were applied stereotypically to the many. All the ethnic Chinese arrested for "political" crimes in the Tomsk district in 1937 were shot, for example, possibly because they were associated with money lending and opium-smuggling. A third category not on the list was ongoing contact with relatives or neighbors who had fled Russia and were living abroad. This opened up ordinary men and women to trumped-up charges of espionage. Likely categories surprisingly absent from documents so far unearthed include homosexuals and lesbians, those congenitally physically or mentally challenged, and persons with chronic, contagious illnesses such as tuberculosis and syphilis.

    We may never know precisely how many fell victim to the mass operations and how many were caught in one or another of the other Purge initiatives that battered Stalinist society in the late 1930s. I have compiled copies of requests for approval of at least 110,000 mass-operation executions for the period July 1937-January 1938 alone. It ultimately may turn out that as many as half the deaths during the Great Purges were the result of mass operations.


    Source: Data from table, "Appendix (a). USSR Custodial Populations, 1934-1953," in J. Arch Getty, Gabor T. Rittersporn, and Viktor N. Zemskov, "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence," American Historical Review vol. 98 no. 4 (October 1993): 1048-49.

    The GULAG proper was formed in 1934 to join existing labor-camp networks into a single organization controlled from the center. Stalin died in 1953. This second chart tracks populations (as of 1 January) in the three major Soviet correctional systems during the interim. It does not include dekulakized peasant-exiles and their dependents. The overall number of these remained relatively constant from 1935 through 1940 (when authorities evidently stopped tracking the category) at roughly 1 million. Neither does it include prisoners of war, wartime deportees, or other direct victims of WW II.

    In popular language, "GULAG" (Glavnoe upravlenie lagerei/Main Camp Administration) stands for the entire Soviet incarceration apparatus. Strictly speaking, however, the term generally refers to an administrative subset of a larger system. So-called "labor colonies" were an important separate category. So too were conventional jails and prisons.

    Little enough has been established about the inner workings of the GULAG proper. Even less is clear as yet regarding the labor colonies or prisons. Among other problems, it is extraordinarily difficult even to guess at how many individual Soviets may have passed through one or another of the systems. For one thing, prisoners were transferred from one jurisdiction to another and back again with great frequency. Simple summation must result in considerable double or even multiple counting.. For another, the statistics do not reflect recidivism and re-arrests of once-released prisoners. At the moment I estimate that a minimum 10 million individuals did stints of varying length in the GULAG in 1934-53. That number could be as high as the roughly 15 million suggested by totaling those recorded as incoming. Perhaps 6.4 million of these were released directly from the GULAG to civilian society upon completion of their sentence or released for service during WW II .

    Source: Getty et al., Victims, 1048-49.

    The GULAG was never primarily an extermination regime, as was the Nazi system targeting Jews in 1941-45. Most of the approximately 1 million Soviets who died in it from 1934-53 perished from neglect, exposure, malnutrition, disease, and/or overwork. Certain locations had (still largely unsubstantiated) reputations as "death camps." However the system's overall lethality seems to have been much more a byproduct of brutal climatic, living, and work conditions than a deliberate policy targeting marginalized segments of the population. The nominally self-financing, vertically integrated GULAG had a vested economic interest in maintaining its effective labor force, if at brutally minimum or sub-minimum levels.

    GULAG inmates who were capable of working not only drained swamps, cut timber, mined minerals, and furnished the ***** labor for road building, railroad laying, and other construction projects. Location permitting, some of them grew the food and/or caught the fish and game they and their fellow inmates ate to stay alive. Contingents of forced laborers also were attached to factories of a wide variety of types. They worked both within the GULAG system itself and, on a kind of rent-a-prisoner basis, in dangerous and/or low-status jobs in ordinary civilian-sector enterprises. In 1938 (a good year for archival data) some 62,000 GULAG laborers were involved in: fuel production; machine building and metal fabrication; timber; woodworking; furniture; wood chemicals; construction materials; shipbuilding; textiles; swineries; leather works; fisheries; edible fats; fat processing and soap making; etc. In some individual sectors such as sporting goods and household furniture GULAG output totally dominated Soviet production.

    Source: See Ekonomika GULAGa i ee rol' v razvitii strany 1930-e gody. Sbornik dokumentov (Moscow, 1998): 99-100; 110-11; etc.

    Contrary to the impression given by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and others, a clear majority of those passing through the GULAG Archipelago DID NOT do so as political prisoners. The number of those sentenced for "counterrevolutionary activities" (Article 58 of the Criminal Code) varied from year to year. So too did the percentage of out-and-out "politicals" in the system. Politicals typically made up from a quarter to a third of the GULAG population at any given moment. While the actual percentages ranged from a low of 12.6% in 1936 to a temporary high of 59.2% in 1946, the aggregate numbers they reflected stayed consistently in the 0.4-0.5 million range from 1939 to 1953. Note however that nothing prevented Soviet authorities from charging repressees on political grounds with nonpolitical offenses. Thus the actual number of political prisoners must have been somewhat greater than these statistics suggest.

    Source: Getty et al., Victims, 1038-39; 1048-49.
    Last edited by | K Y L E |; 04-09-2006, 11:22 AM.

  • #2
    What people seem to forget when bashing Communism and stalin specifically is the capitalist world.

    What was happening during the Great Purges?

    1. The great depression that lead to starvation throughout the capitalist world, with 40% unemployment in the center of the capitalist world, the USA.

    2. The Spanish Civil War.

    3. The Nazi dictatorship.

    4. Japanese aggression in China.

    5. Western aggression in Latin America and Africa.

    etc. etc.

    Comment


    • #3
      This is suppose to refute capitalist propaganda?

      Comment


      • #4
        What is there not to understand my simple friend?

        These sources from the Soviet records put the number of 'unnatural' deaths in the USSR to under 2 million. The majority being deaths from unintentional hardships in working camps and state sanctioned executions. I know the utopian moralist in you will shudder here, but I have made a point at looking at the violent capitalist world in comparsion to socialism. Capitalism is far worse. On the other hand people that use Soviet dissidents and other unscientific guesswork, cite numbers far above 50 million.

        There is a huge difference between 50-100 million and under 2 million. 50 million is world war proportions (another crime of capitalism), while 2 million, when taken as an overall percentage number of the populace, is similar to a lot of nations that have went through Civil War periods.

        Therefore to claim that Communism is the worst system known to man, something the so-called "communist" you shares the opinion of the bourgeoisis, is a straight up lie and has been soundly refuted.

        Comment


        • #5
          Why would you need to justify by comparison? Unless there's something inherently wrong with your system, you shouldn't need to.

          But, it's quite obvious that there is something wrong with your sham socialism.

          Comment


          • #6
            Because, stupid, the world is capitalist. The USSR was socialist, a superior form of economic system. A comparsion in violence shows quite clearly that socialism is far better for the average man than a capitalist state. This is quite obvious.

            "Sham socialism", eh? Is that why the only socialist countries have been those that I support and defend? Is that why you are a utopian, while I learn from history on socialism?

            Socialism is NOT utopia. It is NOT perfect. So there will always been something wrong with it.

            Comment


            • #7
              Is that supposed to prove that its superior to capitalism? all this article talks about is how the executions and deportations weren't as bad as thought, but it still doens't justify anything. When will you understand that its the people who run the system not the actual system that matters? If Stalin was a brutal sadist no matter whether he was capitalist or communist he would still abuse his power.

              lol that guy in the centre of your avy look like Shevchenko.
              I LOVE YOU ZIDANE! HURRAH FOR THE MOTHER THAT GAVE BIRTH TO YOU!

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by ondadownlow
                Is that supposed to prove that its superior to capitalism? all this article talks about is how the executions and deportations weren't as bad as thought, but it still doens't justify anything.
                There is plenty of justification for Soviet Repression; these sources were infact, as you rightly noted, talking about the scale of repression. The numbers game is entirely important.


                When will you understand that its the people who run the system not the actual system that matters? If Stalin was a brutal sadist no matter whether he was capitalist or communist he would still abuse his power.

                For the record Stalin never abused his power. The socialist repression throughout the world has been far lower in comparsion to capitalist repression. That is my whole point.

                The system is far more important than the leaders. For Stalin was Premier of the Soviet Union and General Secretary of the Communist Party. To claim he alone was behind the purges is an absurd fantasy. The Soviet Socialist system -- the public organizations, law enforcement, etc. -- at all levels were directly involved with the Purges. Not Stalin directing everything from the Kremlin - that is a plebian thought and reasoning of systems and indeed history, something that is encouraged in failing school systems in the West.

                The masses were directly involved with the Purges - the "Great Man" theory of history is up there with Religionism other mysticism and falseness.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by | K Y L E |
                  There is plenty of justification for Soviet Repression; these sources were infact, as you rightly noted, talking about the scale of repression. The numbers game is entirely important.
                  Come on ondadownlow; these people were Chinese and relatives of migrants. They had it coming!
                  Last edited by D_Bokk; 04-10-2006, 11:48 AM.

                  Comment

                  Post ad widget 300x250

                  Collapse

                  LATEST POSTS

                  Collapse

                  Topics Statistics Last Post
                  Started by Campt1971, Today, 03:51 AM
                  0 responses
                  2 views
                  0 likes
                  Last Post Campt1971  
                  Started by RachelHelmik, Today, 01:43 AM
                  0 responses
                  2 views
                  0 likes
                  Last Post RachelHelmik  
                  Started by buytrueketo, Today, 01:14 AM
                  0 responses
                  1 view
                  0 likes
                  Last Post buytrueketo  
                  Started by buytrueketo, Today, 01:13 AM
                  0 responses
                  2 views
                  0 likes
                  Last Post buytrueketo  
                  Started by Thaves1953, Today, 12:18 AM
                  0 responses
                  4 views
                  0 likes
                  Last Post Thaves1953  
                  Started by Agar1936, Yesterday, 04:12 AM
                  0 responses
                  2 views
                  0 likes
                  Last Post Agar1936  
                  Started by DeclanMenzie, Yesterday, 01:51 AM
                  0 responses
                  2 views
                  0 likes
                  Last Post DeclanMenzie  
                  Started by greencbduksale, Yesterday, 01:31 AM
                  0 responses
                  2 views
                  0 likes
                  Last Post greencbduksale  
                  Started by greencbduksale, Yesterday, 01:30 AM
                  0 responses
                  2 views
                  0 likes
                  Last Post greencbduksale  
                  Started by Agul1985, Yesterday, 12:10 AM
                  0 responses
                  4 views
                  0 likes
                  Last Post Agul1985  
                  Working...
                  X